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MSU Teacher Education Unit (TEU)

B.S.Ed. with a major in Physical Science ­ Option 2

BSE in Physical Science: Option 2 requires 137 hours minimum
Credits are semester hours

Physical Science Option 2

North Dakota State Standards 8.21 (Physical Science -Option 2)

8.21.1E CONTENT: PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Study includes:
* coursework in chemistry and physics (minimum 15 semester hours in each discipline)
* coursework in earth science (minimum 12 semester hours)
* introductory biology
* laboratory and field experiences in the sciences
* of mathematics through calculus (minimum of one semester of calculus) and statistics

The required coursework in chemistry, physics, and earth science are covered through:
Chemistry: CHEM 121/121L (5), 122/122L (5), 230 or 240 (5), 380 (4) [19 SH total]
Physics: PHYS 203/204 (8) or 221/222 (10), elective (4) [12-14 total]
Earth Science: GEOL 105 (4), 210 (3), electives (5) [12 SH total]
Note that the physics coursework totals less than the required 15 SH. The requirement apparently used to read "balanced coursework in chemistry and physics, 30 SH total". Because the requirment now reads 15 SH in both disciplines, an additional PHYS course will have to be added to this Option 2 of the Physical Science BSE.

The biology requirement is met through BIOL 151 (4), BIOL 154 (4), and a BIOL elective (4).

Requirements for laboratory experiences in the sciences are met through all of the required science courses. Field experiences are built into GEOL 105, 240, and 320, and into some of the Biology courses.

Math requirements are met through MATH 165 Calculus I and MATH 240 Applied Statistics.

8.21.2 NATURE OF SCIENCE
The program requires study of the history and philosophy of science as well as interrelationships among the sciences. The program uses varied performance assessments of candidate’s understanding and ability to apply that knowledge.

Examples of performance assessments may include how to...
* assist students in understanding that study of science is continuous, integrated process of observing, questioning, investigating, reflecting
* construct age-appropriate learning activities that assist students’ understanding of common scientific concepts such as systems, evidence, models, constancy and change, form and function
* engage students in comparing and contrasting scientific and nonscientific ways of knowing; integrating criteria of science in investigations and case studies
* develop learning experiences for students which demonstrate an interdisciplinary understanding of science
* develop student understanding of the relationships that exist among science, technology, societal needs, and community issues

The Physical Science: Option 2 program requires seven introductory courses that are General Education courses (PHYS 203/204 or 221/222; CHEM 121, 122; GEOL 105; BIOL 151, 154). Each of these courses address various historical aspects of science as well as the basic nature of science (i.e., scientific method). Interrelationships among the sciences are introduced in these courses, but they are also covered in some more advanced courses (CHEM 380, GEOL 210, GEOL 320, and GEOL 321).

Performance assessment of candidate’s abilities to apply this knowledge in teaching are integrated into SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School, which includes a teaching practicum in the public schools, and ED 493 Student Teaching.

8.21.3 INQUIRY
The program requires study of the processes of science common to all scientific fields. The program uses varied performance assessments of candidate’s understanding and ability to apply that knowledge.

Examples of performance assessments may include how to...
* locate resources, design and conduct inquiry-based, open-ended investigations, interpret findings, communicate results, make judgments based on evidence
* use listening and questioning strategies that encourage inquiry and probe for divergent student responses
* plan/implement data-based activities requiring students to reflect upon their findings, make inferences, and link new ideas to preexisting knowledge
* encourage productive peer interaction and plan both individual and small group activities to facilitate inquiry
* promote student use of scientific process, decision-making, and analysis skills for investigating science-related real-life problems

The process of scientific inquiry is integrated in some way into all science courses taken by candidates, from introductory General Education courses, which incorporate labs in which students apply the scientific method, to upper-level courses. Some upper-level courses emphasize research-based laboratory investigations (e.g., CHEM 380, GEOL 210). In addition, candidates are required to take a course in research methods (SCI 240). This course covers basic research methods, and students must apply these methods to develop and present (written and oral) a proposal for a research project. Finally, candidates are required to carry out an original research project, and to present and defend a paper on this project in SCI 480 Seminar.

Performance assessment of candidate’s abilities to apply this knowledge in teaching are integrated into SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School, which includes a teaching practicum in the public schools, and ED 493 Student Teaching.

8.21.4 CONTEXT OF SCIENCE
The program requires the study of the effect of social and technological context on the study of science and on the application and valuing of scientific knowledge. The program prepares candidates to relate science to the daily lives and interests of students and to a larger framework of human endeavor and understanding. The program provides the candidate with an understanding of the relationship of science to industry, business, government, and multicultural aspects of a variety of communities. The program uses varied performance assessments of candidate’s understanding and ability to apply that knowledge.

Examples of performance assessments may include how to...
* engage students in activities and projects in which they examine important social or technological issues and implications related to their discipline(s)
* analyze how ethics and values affect scientific knowledge and its applications in technology and society
* relate science to the personal lives and interests of students, to potential careers, and to knowledge in other domains
* use data relevant to a variety of communities, their culture, and their resources to relate science lessons that are appropriate for those communities

The context of science is integrated to introductory General Education courses (the Cultural strand). Some upper-level courses deal with social and technological aspects of science and the application and value of scientific knowledge (e.g., CHEM 380 Environmental Chemistry, GEOL 255 Economic and Petroleum Geology, GEOL 320 Oceanography, GEOL 321 Hydrogeology).

Performance assessment of candidate’s abilities to apply this knowledge in teaching are integrated into SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School, which includes a teaching practicum in the public schools, and ED 493 Student Teaching.

8.21.5 SKILLS OF TEACHING
The program requires the candidate to demonstrate proficiency in methods of teaching science. The program uses varied performance assessments of candidate’s understanding and ability to apply that knowledge.

Examples of performance assessments may include the candidates being able to...
* foster competency in the use of scientific processes to investigate phenomena, interpret findings, and communicate results
* engage all students in the study of science, providing for differences in gender, socioeconomic background, culture, ethnicity, academic ability and disabilities
* select and use a variety of age-appropriate instructional strategies, materials, and assessment methods for teaching and evaluating student success in science
* identify goals, objectives and related assessment in science instruction
* state a philosophy and provide a rationale for choosing particular science teaching strategies
* identify common student misconceptions or naïve conceptions in the content field, their source, and appropriate teaching responses
* reinforce the learning and understanding of key concepts from several perspectives
* apply grade-level appropriate mathematical and computer skills to the scientific investigation of phenomena and the analysis of data

General methods of teaching are learned by candidates in the Education courses that are part of the Professional Education Sequence. Methods of teaching science are covered specifically in SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School. This course is designed to acquaint the candidate with down-to-earth approaches for teaching "hands-on" science at the secondary level. Emphasis is placed on learning theory, lesson and curriculum design, and instruction methods. Among specific topics addressed by SCI 391 are: design and delivery of "hands-on" science lessons, utilization of educational resource materials required for the design and delivery of such lessons, identification and guidance of reasoning skills required for the scientific enterprise (including guided induction by questioning), appropriate use of media, classroom management skills, construction and delivery of both written and practical examinations, politics of the education profession, and defense of personal philosophical positions on science education.

Performance assessment of candidate’s abilities to apply this knowledge in teaching are integrated into SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School, which includes a teaching practicum in the public schools, and ED 493 Student Teaching.

8.21.6 CURRICULUM
The program provides candidates with information necessary to identify, evaluate, and apply a coherent, focused science curriculum that is consistent with state and national standards for science education and appropriate for addressing the needs, abilities, and interests of students. The program uses varied performance assessments of candidate’s understanding and ability to apply that knowledge.

Examples of performance assessments may include how to...
* relate instructional goals, materials, and actions to state and national science education standards, analyzing strengths and weaknesses in a particular classroom context
* identify, evaluate and assemble science curriculum and instructional materials from a variety of sources, including the internet
* develop and implement long-range and unit plans, with clear rationales, goals, methods, materials and assessments
* understand the role of technology in education and define a rationale and long-range strategy for including technology in science education
* design and implement learning activities that thematically relate science with other school subjects and community resources

General aspects of curricula are learned by candidates in the Education courses that are part of the Professional Education Sequence (particularly ED 320 Curriculum, Planning, and Assessment). Curricular aspects of teaching science are covered specifically in SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School. This course is designed to acquaint the candidate with down-to-earth approaches for teaching "hands-on" science at the secondary level. Emphasis is placed on learning theory, lesson and curriculum design, and instruction methods. Among specific topics addressed by SCI 391 are: design and delivery of "hands-on" science lessons, utilization of educational resource materials required for the design and delivery of such lessons, identification and guidance of reasoning skills required for the scientific enterprise (including guided induction by questioning), appropriate use of media, classroom management skills, construction and delivery of both written and practical examinations, politics of the education profession, and defense of personal philosophical positions on science education.

Performance assessment of candidate’s abilities to apply this knowledge in teaching are integrated into SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School, which includes a teaching practicum in the public schools, and ED 493 Student Teaching.

8.21.7 ASSESSMENT
The program prepares candidates to use a variety of performance assessment strategies to evaluate the intellectual, social, and personal development of the learner in all aspects of science.

Examples of performance assessments may include experience with and knowledge of how to...
* identify and use the most appropriate methods for gathering information about student learning
* align assignments with instructional objectives
* demonstrate the ability to use multiple strategies to assess teaching and learning authentically, consistent with national standards and goals for science education
* engage in reflective self-assessment and develop a system for self-assessment as a practicing teacher

General aspects of assessment are learned by candidates in the Education courses that are part of the Professional Education Sequence (particularly ED 320 Curriculum, Planning, and Assessment). Assessment aspects of teaching science are covered specifically in SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School. This course is designed to acquaint the candidate with down-to-earth approaches for teaching "hands-on" science at the secondary level. Emphasis is placed on learning theory, lesson and curriculum design, and instruction methods. Among specific topics addressed by SCI 391 are: design and delivery of "hands-on" science lessons, utilization of educational resource materials required for the design and delivery of such lessons, identification and guidance of reasoning skills required for the scientific enterprise (including guided induction by questioning), appropriate use of media, classroom management skills, construction and delivery of both written and practical examinations, politics of the education profession, and defense of personal philosophical positions on science education.

Performance assessment of candidate’s abilities to apply this knowledge in teaching are integrated into SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School, which includes a teaching practicum in the public schools, and ED 493 Student Teaching.

8.21.8 ENVIRONMENT FOR LEARNING
The program prepares candidates to design and manage safe and supportive learning environments in the classroom, laboratory, and field. The program reflects high expectations for the success of all students. The program uses varied performance assessments of candidate’s understanding and ability to apply that knowledge.

Examples of performance assessments may include how to...
* maintain a positive classroom environment conducive to learning of science
* identify and promote the elements of an engaging and stimulating science learning environment
* plan and develop opportunities for students to investigate and learn from resources, artifacts, exhibits, events, displays and the environment
* structure age-appropriate laboratory and field experiences for students
* help students understand the appropriate use of scientific equipment and materials
* set up procedures for safe handling, labeling and storage of chemicals, electrical equipment, and other materials and know actions to take to prevent or report an emergency
* demonstrate knowledge of legal responsibilities and know how to act to prevent potential problems with liability and negligence, especially as applied to science teaching
* practice the safe and ethical use and care of animals for science instruction within the standards and recommendations of the science community and applicable regulations

Candidates learn general aspects of learning environments in the Education courses that are part of the Professional Education Sequence (particularly ED 460 Managing the Learning Environment, and ED 470 Teaching Diverse Learners). Learning environment aspects of teaching science are covered specifically in SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School. This course is designed to acquaint the candidate with down-to-earth approaches for teaching "hands-on" science at the secondary level. Emphasis is placed on learning theory, lesson and curriculum design, and instruction methods. Among specific topics addressed by SCI 391 are: design and delivery of "hands-on" science lessons, utilization of educational resource materials required for the design and delivery of such lessons, identification and guidance of reasoning skills required for the scientific enterprise (including guided induction by questioning), appropriate use of media, classroom management skills, construction and delivery of both written and practical examinations, politics of the education profession, and defense of personal philosophical positions on science education.

Performance assessment of candidate’s abilities to apply this knowledge in teaching are integrated into SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School, which includes a teaching practicum in the public schools, and ED 493 Student Teaching.

8.21.9 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE
The program prepares candidates to participate in the professional community, improving practice through their personal actions, education and development. The program uses varied performance assessments of candidate’s understanding and ability to apply that knowledge.

Examples of performance assessments may include how to...
* developing and stating personal goals and a philosophy of teaching based on research and contemporary values of the science education community
* demonstrating understanding of the concept of a community of learners and interacting with instructors and peers as a member of such a community
* documenting and reflecting upon personal strengths and weaknesses in an effort to improve their preparation to teach science
* taking personal responsibility for growth and assisting others who are preparing to teach science
* demonstrating the ability to handle problems and tension calmly and effectively, and relating to students, peers, instructors, and supervisors with integrity
* participating in professional associations and activities and reading professional journals in an effort to improve teaching and stay abreast of current events and needs in the field

Candidates in Physical Science are part of three science programs (chemistry, physics, and geosciences), each of which is a small program that promotes a close-knit community of learners. Candidates interact with peer students and instructors in courses, learning chemistry, physics and earth science, and learning how to apply that knowledge as a scientist. Candidates also learn to be part of the larger scientific community outside the classroom through participation in research with faculty and fellow students, often presenting their work at regional or national professional conferences. Candidates also learn to act as the leader of a learning community, as a teacher, through Education courses, SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School, and ED 493 Student Teaching.

Performance assessment of candidate’s abilities to apply this knowledge in teaching are integrated into SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School, which includes a teaching practicum in the public schools, and ED 493 Student Teaching.

8.21.10 TECHNOLOGY
The program requires the study of current, appropriate instructional technologies. The program uses varied performance assessments of candidate’s understanding and ability to apply that knowledge.

Examples of performance assessments may include how to...
* demonstrate appropriate use of various technologies with their teaching
* select and use appropriate technology tools specific to their content area(s)
* use technology to effectively manage communications, instructional planning, record keeping and data management
* use instructional technologies, including computers, interactive video, telecommunications, and other new technologies to promote use of scientific processes and problem-solving skills

Candidates learn current, appropriate use of instructional technologies in Education courses (ED 320 Curriculum, Planning, and Assessment, ED 380 Technology in Teaching). Learning to use technology appropriately in teaching science is covered specifically in SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School. This course is designed to acquaint the candidate with down-to-earth approaches for teaching "hands-on" science at the secondary level. Emphasis is placed on learning theory, lesson and curriculum design, and instruction methods. Among specific topics addressed by SCI 391 are: design and delivery of "hands-on" science lessons, utilization of educational resource materials required for the design and delivery of such lessons, identification and guidance of reasoning skills required for the scientific enterprise (including guided induction by questioning), appropriate use of media, classroom management skills, construction and delivery of both written and practical examinations, politics of the education profession, and defense of personal philosophical positions on science education.

Performance assessment of candidate’s abilities to apply this knowledge in teaching are integrated into SCI 391 Teaching Science in the Secondary School, which includes a teaching practicum in the public schools, and ED 493 Student Teaching.